ISBS Online Lectures Series

The Sports Biomechanics Lecture Series was organised by Dr Stuart McErlain-Naylor on behalf of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports. The series, sponsored by Vicon, includes 28 lectures on the biomechanics of specific sports as well as biomechanical data collection and analysis techniques. The original goal for the project was to provide resources to facilitate online teaching and further exploration of biomechanics topics for undergraduate and postgraduate students.

  • Lecture 1
  • Literature

Alasdair Dempsey covers the biomechanics behind anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury mechanisms, with reference to underlying mechanical principles such as moments and moment arms. He also discusses the evidence behind potential intervention strategies.

  • Lecture 2
  • Literature

Paul Felton discusses the scientific literature on the topic of cricket bowling biomechanics. He covers both fast bowling and spin bowling, with reference to the underlying mechanical principles of linear and angular momentum, and conservation of momentum. Paul also presents a kinematic comparison of male and female bowlers.

  • Lecture 3
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Stuart McErlain-Naylor discusses the scientific literature on the topic of cricket power hitting biomechanics. Topics include: a) the effect of impact location (e.g. sweetspot) on shot outcome (e.g. carry distance, ball launch angle, ball launch speed); b) the kinematic technique parameters most associated with variation in power hitting performance; c) a kinematic comparison of male and female international batters; and d) a comparison of batting kinematics against different delivery methods (bowler / bowling machine / SidearmTM) with reference to representative training design.

  • Lecture 4
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Johannes Funken presents a comparison of elite long jump biomechanics between athletes with and without a below the knee prosthesis. This comparison includes both kinetic and kinematic parameters. Discussions include whether athletes with a below the knee prosthesis are at an advantage or a disadvantage.

Willwacher et al., 2017 -
Funken et al., 2019, MSSE -
Funken et al., 2019, RSOS -
Funken, 2019, PhD Thesis -
Funken, 2019, JJBSE -

  • Lecture 5
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Wouter Hoogkamer presents a discussion of the scientific literature on the topic of running footwear and running economy. The talk includes specific reference to the sub 2 hour marathon attempts, even including alternative factors such as course design and drafting. The Nike Nike Vaporfly 4% is explained and assessed in detail.

Shoes - Hoogkamer et al., 2018 -
Shoes - Hoogkamer et al., 2019 -
2 hr marathon - Hoogkamer et al., 2017 -
Running economy vs time savings - Hoogkamer et al., 2016 -
Running economy vs time savings - Kipp et al., 2019 -
Drafting - Hoogkamer et al., 2018 -
Drafting - Hoogkamer et al., 2019 -
Course design - Triska et al., 2019 -

  • Lecture 6
  • Literature

Pedro Morouço discusses the scientific literature on the topic of swimming biomechanics. The talk focuses on methods and techniques used to assess swimmers in the water and includes some interesting comparisons of upper and lower limb contributions, among other factors.

  • Lecture 7
  • Literature

Archit Navandar discusses the scientific literature relating to the topic of hamstring injuries in football / soccer. This talk has implications for other team sports or for running / sprinting. Archit talks through both internal and external risk factors for injury, injury mechanisms, and both prehabilitation (prehab) and rehabilitation (rehab) methods, all with reference to elite sporting populations.

  • Lecture 8
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Neal Smith discusses the scientific literature on the topic of football / soccer kicking biomechanics. This includes an in-depth breakdown of the kinematics of the power kicking technique into separate phases, and specific reference to data from elite athletes including Cristiano Ronaldo and his Knuckleball free kicks.

  • Lecture 9
  • Literature

Céleste Wilkins presents an overview of scientific research on the topic of equestrian biomechanics - specifically focusing on the rider and the interactions between the horse and rider. This includes a comparison of elite and sub-elite riders, a discussion of pelvic tilt, and horse-rider coordination.

  • Lecture 10
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Alexandra Atack discusses the scientific literature on the topic of rugby place kicking biomechanics, with implications for similar kicking sports such as football / soccer, American football, and Australian rules football. As well as a detailed breakdown of the rugby place kicking technique, this talk includes a kinetic and kinematic comparison of players / shots that were successful, short, or inaccurate (wide).

Main papers discussed
Atack et al., 2019:
Atack et al., 2019a:
Bezodis et al., 2019:

Papers referenced
Linthorne & Stokes, 2014:
Sinclair et al., 2014:
Zhang et al., 2012:
Sinclair et al., 2017:
Bezodis et al., 2007:
Green et al., 2016:

  • Lecture 11
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Bill Baltzopoulos provides a discussion of the inverse dynamics approach used in biomechanics. This includes methods for the assessment of loading in the musculoskeletal system, an overview of modeling approaches, how to approach inverse dynamics, and a discussion of mechanical misconceptions / terminology. The talk includes a series of recommendations for anybody using or reporting an inverse dynamics approach.

Derrick et al., 2019: ,
Nigg, B. M. (2007). Force System Analysis. In B. M. Nigg & W. Herzog (Eds.), Biomechanics of the Musculo-skeletal System. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Vigotsky et al., 2019:
Zajac et al., 2002:
Andrews, J. G. (1974). Biomechanical analysis of human motion. In J. G. Hay (Ed.), Kinesiology IV (pp. 32-42). Washington, D.C.: American Association for Health, Physical Education,and Recreation (AAHPER).
Paul, 1966:

  • Lecture 12
  • Literature

Bruce Elliott discusses the scientific research literature on the topic of tennis biomechanics. This includes an in-depth analysis of equipment (racket and ball) for different stages of development, the serve and forehand, among other topics. Bruce also discusses the role of variability in human movement and in representative training design.

Bahamonde, 1997:
Bahamonde & Knudson, 1999:
Davids, K., Bennett, S. & Newell, K. (2006). Variability in the Movement System: A Multi-disciplinary Perspective. Champaign, Ill, Human Kinetics.
Elliott, B. (1981). Tennis racquet selection: A factor in early skill development. The Australian J. of Sport Sciences, September.
Elliott et al., 1995:
Farrow & Reid, 2010:
Fernandez-Fernandez et al., 2019:
Knudson, 1990:
Landlinger et al., 2010:
Seeley et al., 2011:

  • Lecture 13
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Jacques Gay from Vicon presents an introduction to motion capture (mocap), a comparison of motion capture hardware and software alternatives, and a discussion of modeling techniques within motion capture. This talk is aimed at anybody interested in motion capture, from students to experienced researchers, and will hopefully provide something of benefit for all biomechanists.

Research Papers:
Conventional Gait Model Davis et al., 1991:
Kadaba et al., 1990:

Leboeuf et al., 2019:
Oxford Foot Model Carson et al., 2001:
Theologis et al., 2003:
Stebbins et al., 2006:
McCahill et al., 2008:

SCoRE and SARA (including OCST*)
Ehrig et al., 2007:
Ehrig et al., 2006:
Ehrig & Heller, 2019:
*Taylor et al., 2010:

Leardini et al., 2007:
Bell Bell et al., 1989:
Hara Hara et al., 2016:
Harrington Harrington et al., 2007:

Cappozzo et al., 1995:

Vicon Info:
Main Website:
Life Science Applications:
Nexus Software:
Case Studies:
Models and Scripts:
Support contact:
Vicon Documentation:
Vicon Youtube:

  • Lecture 14
  • Literature

Kristof Kipp discusses research on weightlifting biomechanics, including a comprehensive analysis of the kinetics and kinematics at the ankle, knee, and hip joints as well as the bar trajectory. He shares his ideas around measuring efficiency and future directions for weightlifting research.

Many of Kristof's research articles can be accessed on ResearchGate here:

  • Lecture 15
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Ina Janssen discusses her experiences of sports biomechanics within the Netherlands Olympic Team. This includes case studies from the BMX start, para cycling bike fitting, long jump takeoff, handball (ACL), and volleyball (jumper’s knee).

  • Lecture 16
  • Literature

Vicon present a practical demonstration of 3D motion capture, discussing the methodology along with a discussion of motion capture beyond the gait lab. This live demonstration includes live and post-processing, as well as real time biofeedback.

Vicon Info:
Main Website:
Life Science Applications:
Nexus Software:
Case Studies:
Models and Scripts:
Support contact:
Vicon Documentation:
Vicon Youtube:

  • Lecture 17
  • Literature

JB Morin discusses force assessment during sprinting. He takes us through an entertaining journey from historical measurement techniques through to the current day, and discusses the balance between lab and field-based testing and application.

  • Lecture 18
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Gareth Irwin discusses topics including motor control and gymnastics, the coaching biomechanics interface, principles of training, and the evolution of skill and skill selection.

Functional Phases and Angular Momentum Characteristics of Tkatchev and Kovacs:
Inter-segmental Coordination in Progressions for the Longswing on High Bar:
Biomechanical Similarities of Progressions for the Longswing on High Bar:
Musculoskeletal Demands of Progressions for the Longswing on High Bar:
Musculoskeletal Work Preceding the Outward and Inward Tkachev on Uneven Bars in Artistic Gymnastics:
The Conceptual Process of Skill Progression Development in Artistic Gymnastics:
Influence of Longswing Technique on the Kinematics and Key Release Parameters of the Straddle Tkachev on Uneven Bars:
Multidimensional Joint Coupling: A Case Study Visualisation Approach to Movement Coordination and Variability:
The Influence of the Vaulting Table on the Handspring Front Somersault:
Whole-body and Multi-Joint Kinematic Control Strategy Variability During Backward Rotating Dismounts From Beam:
Kinematic Changes During Learning the Longswing on High Bar:
Changes in Joint Kinetics During Learning the Longswing on High Bar:
Coordination as a Function of Skill Level in the Gymnastics Longswing:

  • Lecture 19
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Delsys present an overview of electromyography techniques and application within sports biomechanics. Topics include: foundation of neural control; challenges and recommendations; demonstration; analysis of EMG; and exploring motor unit control.

De Luca CJ. The Use of Surface Electromyography in Biomechanics. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 1997.
De Luca CJ, Gilmore LD, Kuznetsov M, and Roy SH. Filtering the Surface EMG signal: Movement artifact and baseline noise contamination. Journal of Biomechanics, 2010.
De Luca CJ, Kuznetsov M, Gilmore LD, and Roy SH. Inter-electrode spacing of surface EMG sensors: Reduction of crosstalk contamination during voluntary contractions. Journal of Biomechanics, 2011.
De Luca CJ, Chang SS, Roy SH, Kline JC, Nawab SH. Decomposition of Surface EMG Signals from Cyclic Dynamic Contractions. Journal of Neurophysiology, 2015.
De Luca CJ and Contessa P. Hierarchical control of motor units in voluntary contraction. Journal of Neurophysiology, 2012

  • Lecture 20
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Kristin Sainani presents a 'nuts and bolts' lecture, explaining fundamental concepts in statistics. This includes standard error, confidence intervals, p-values, hypothesis testing, and minimal effects testing.

Sports Biomechanics editorial: Recommendations for statistical analysis involving null hypothesis significance testing:
Kristin's second lecture on 'Tips for Scientific Writing':
Kristin's stats column in PM&R:
Stats training Kristin offers through Stanford professional development:

  • Lecture 21
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Dario Cazzola discusses his research estimating spinal loading in rugby activities, including experimental data and computer simulations.

Cervical Spine Injuries: A Whole-Body Musculoskeletal Model for the Analysis of Spinal Loading
Musculoskeletal modelling of the human cervical spine for the investigation of injury mechanisms during axial impacts:

  • Lecture 22
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Todd Pataky presents a comparison and discussion of discrete (e.g. maximum or minimum forces or angles) and continuous (e.g. statistical parametric mapping [SPM]) data analysis techniques in biomechanics.

spm1d main site:
Public forum for spm1d; general statistics questions welcome!
Overview of continuous analysis:
Overview of Random Field Theory:
Power analysis for continuous data (Python only):

  • Lecture 23
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Sam Allen presents his research using computer simulation to study the triple jump from a theoretical biomechanics perspective. The presentation includes a comparison of single and double arm techniques, a discussion of vertical and horizontal velocity trade-offs, and an optimisation of hop, step, and jump phase ratios.

  • Lecture 24
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Wendy Holliday presents a lecture on the biomechanics of cycling, including: muscle patterns and kinematics of the cyclist; bicycle configuration; and practical tips for cycling-related studies.

  • Lecture 25
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John Drazan presents some of his research and experience in engaging youth in STEM through biomechanics and sport science.

4th Family:
Court Science:
Tomorrow's Stars Foundation:
ASB East Coast Meeting:
John's Google Scholar:
National Biomechanics Day:

  • Lecture 26
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Tony Myers presents an overview of Bayesian statistics for sport and exercise science, including intuitive examples and demonstrations.

Some useful links from the lecture:
2016 ASA Statement:
The American Statistician Editorial 2019:
The American Statistician Special Issue:

Some examples of studies using Bayesian analysis (with Tony as an author):
Myers et al., 2020 (Swimming):
Dugdale et al., 2020 (Soccer):
Cullen et al., 2019 (Sleep):
Ellis et al., 2019 (Caffeine / Soccer):

  • Lecture 27
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Kristin Sainani presents a series of tips and tricks for successful scientific writing.

Writing in the Sciences course on Coursera:
Medical Statistics certificate program on Stanford Online:
Statistically Speaking column at PM&R:

Recent webinars:
Statistics in Sports Science:
How to Be a Statistical Detective:
Effective Data Visualization:
Principles of Effective Statistics:

  • Lecture 28
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Walter Herzog presents a lecture on the fundamentals of muscle mechanics. This includes: basic structure of muscles and sarcomeres; the sliding filament, cross-bridge and three filament model of muscle contraction; and how these relate to the force-length relationship, force-velocity relationship, and force-time properties of muscle (with sporting examples).